Linda F. C. Bullock, PhD, RN, FAAN

Linda-BullockInterim Associate Dean of Research,
Adjunct Professor, Professor Emerit

Jeanette Lancaster Alumni Professorship in Nursing – University of Virginia

E-mail: lbullock@missouri.edu
Phone: 434.982.1966
Fax: 434.243.8372

Nursing Specialty

Maternal-Child Health,  Labor and Delivery and community-based research pertaining to intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its impact on birth outcomes as well as child development.

Interest Area(s)

Intervention research addressing intimate partner violence among rural women;  School Health; Smoking Cessation during pregnancy and global research addressing mental health issues among orphans in Thailand.

Area of Doctoral Study

Public Health

Education

  • PhD, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • M.S., Texas Woman’s Univeristy, Houston, Texas
  • B.S., Texas Woman’s University, Houston, Texas
  • B.S., Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas

Program of Research

Domestic violence is a major health problem for women and children as well as a significant social issue. My research has focused on domestic violence in a population of pregnant women and has included collaborating with nurses nationally and internationally and with members of other disciplines on the MU campus. Specifically, I have investigated the prevalence of intimate partner violence, its consequences to mother and fetus, and intervention strategies to improve health outcomes in both the woman and child. This research not only addresses a gap in knowledge but also is providing evidence-based practice recommendations for clinical practice. It has also been useful in advising legislators and policymakers in their development of programs to aid this vulnerable population.

A secondary focus of my research has been on researching smoking cessation programs targeting women of reproductive age. I have implemented a randomized controlled trial testing a nurse-delivered telephone social support intervention for low-income rural pregnant women in Missouri who smoke. I have also collaborated with members of the Department of Family and Community Medicine targeting not only the woman who smokes but also her partner if he smokes. Additionally, my colleagues from the Department of Family and Community Medicine and I have been involved in several other tobacco cessation initiatives.

Selected Grants and Awards

FUNDED GRANTS:  Principal Investigator

  • Bullock, L. (5/1/15 – 12/30/18), CHIP of Virginia, NR-LCB-CHIP Feasibility Study. $57,757.
  • Bullock, L. (2012- 2017), Virginia Department of Health, Resource Mothers Evaluation Program.  $691,081.
  • Bullock, L. (2012-2013), UVa Cancer Network Center, Cancer without Walls. $88,032.
  • Bullock, L. (2010 – 2011).  Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy.  Lanford Award, University of Virginia, School of Nursing. $9160.
  • Bullock, L. (2005-2009). Nursing Support: Better Infant Outcomes in Violent Homes.  National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. R01: HD045542.  $1,977,879.
  • Bullock, L. (2001- 2006). Nursing Smoking Cessation Intervention during Pregnancy.  National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research. R01 NR05313. $1,942,148.

FUNDED GRANTS:  Co-Principal Investigator

  • Armer, J., & Bullock, L. (Co-PIs). (2018 – 2021).  5 T32 NR015426 Interdisciplinary Research Training in Health Behavior Research. National Institute of Nursing Research.  (Total award on 2016 NOA $887,616.  2018 Funding: $220, 979). 
  • Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (Co-PIs).  (2012- 2018). NIH/NICHD. R01:HD071771 Perinatal Nurse Home Visiting Enhanced with mHealth Technology. (Total award $4,000,000)
  • Sharps, P., Bullock, L. et al., (2006 – 2011). National Institute of Nursing Research. RO1: NR009093  Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program – DOVE. (Total award: $2,652,992).
  • Tiwari, A., Bullock, L., et al. (2006). The efficacy of a telephone social support and empowerment intervention in reducing intimate partner violence and improving health outcomes. Hong Kong Research Grants Council Earmarked Research Grant for 2006-2009.  $655,560 (HK $). 

Selected Mentored awards

  • Alhusen, Jeanne (2015 – 2018). K23 NR015810 Biological underpinnings of maternal attachment in high risk populations. Bullock, L., Mentor  (award $457,914).           

  • Burnett, Camille  (2014-2016). 3R01HD071771-03S (minority supplement to: Perinatal Nurse Home Visiting Enhanced with mHealth Technology, Camille Burnett, PI, Bullock, L.,  Mentor  (award $159,248).

  • Bacchus, Loraine (2013- 2015) Marie Curie  FP7 PEOPLE 2012 IOF Fellowship, Bullock, L., Mentor to Senior Faculty (award to UVa $35,787).

  • Marter, Abigail (2013 – 2015).  Link between deployment factors and parenting stress in military families.  Tri Service Nursing Research Program Grant N13-P05.  Bullock, L., Pre-Doc Mentor (award $15,119).

  • Wong,  Janet (August 2010 – February 2011). Fulbright Post-Doc Scholar, University of Hong Kong School of Nursing.  Bullock, L. University of Virginia Post-Doc mentor.

Selected Publications

  • *Mitchell, EM, Lothamer, H., Garcia, C., Camacho, F., Des Marais, A., Camacho, T.F., Poulter, M., Bullock, L. & Smith, JS. (2019). Acceptability and feasibility of community-based, lay navigator-facilitated at-home self-collection for human papillomavirus testing in under screened women.. Journal of Women’s Health. (In Press).
  • *Herbell, K., Li, Y., Bloom, T., Sharps, P., Bullock, L. (2019). The Impact of Lifetime Trauma on Parenting. Child Abuse and Neglect. (In Press).
  • *Burnett, C., Crowder, J., Bacchus, L., Schminkey, D., Bullock, L., Sharps, P., & Campbell, J. (2019) It  doesn’t freak us out the way it used to:” An Evaluation of the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home (DOVE) Intervention to Inform Practice and Policy Screening for IPV. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. In Press September 2018
  • *Yablonsky, A., Yan, G., & Bullock, L. (2019) Parenting stress in Navy families: The importance of spirituality and social support. Military Psychology. (in press).
  • *Samankaskorn, W., Alhusen, J., Yan, G., Schminkey, D., & Bullock, L. (2018). Reproductive coercion, intimate partner violence, and unintended pregnancy in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment monitoring system.  JOGNN, 48(1), 50-58.
  • *St. Ivany, A., Kools, S., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2018). Extreme control and instability: Insight into head injury from intimate partner violence. J of Forensic Nursing, 14 (4), 198-205.
  • *St Ivany, A., Bullock, L., Schminkey, D., Wells, K., Sharps, P., & Kools, S. (2018). Living in fear and prioritizing safety: Exploring women’s lives after traumatic brain injury from intimate partner violence. Qualitative Health Research, 28(11), SI, pg 1708-1718.
  • Kuasit, U., Chunuan, S., Hattakit, U., & Bullock, L. (2018). The effects of the resilience-enhancing nursing program on life goals among pregnant teenagers: A randomized controlled trial. Songklanagarind Journal of Nursing, 38(1), 35-45. 
  • Coyne, B., Kennedy, C., Self, A., & Bullock, L. (2018). A comprehensive approach to undergraduate nursing students’ research experiences. J Nurs Educ. (57), 1, 58-62. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20180102-12.
  • * Evans, E., Deutsch, N., Drake, E. & Bullock, L. (2017). Nurse-patient interaction as a treatment for antepartum depression: A mixed-methods analysis. J. of the Amer. Psychiatric Nurses Assoc., 23(6),347-359.DOI:10.1177/10783390317705449.
  • Chisholm, C., Bullock, L., & Ferguson, J. (2017). Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: epidemiology and impact.  Amer. J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology,217(2). 141-144.  August, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.05.042
  • Chisholm, C., Bullock, L., & Ferguson, J. (2017). Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: screening and intervention.  Amer. J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology,217(2), 145-149.  August, 201. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.05.043
  • *Evans, E. & Bullock, L. (2017). Supporting rural women during pregnancy: Baby BEEP nurses.  MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 42(1), 50 – 55.  DOI:10.1097/NMC.0000000000000305.
  • Modipane, M., Waldman. A.L., Ritterband, L., Dillingham, R., Bullock. L., & Ingersoll, K. (2016). Technology use among patients in a non-urban Southern U.S. HIV clinic in 2015.  Telemedicine and e-Health, 22(11), 965 – 968. Doi:10.1089/tmj.2015.0242
  • *Yablonsky, A.M., Yan, G., & Bullock, L. (2016). Parenting stress after deployment in Navy active duty fathers. Military Medicine, 181(8), 854-862. Doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00302.
  • Burnett, C., Bullock, L. and Collins, C. (2016). Evaluation of a clinical cancer trial research training workshop: Helping nurses build capacity in Soutwest Virginia. Public Health Nursing, 33(6), 565-572. DOI: 10.1111/phn.12295
  • *Bacchus, L., Bullock, L., Sharps, P., Burnett, C., Schminkey, D., Buller, A.M., & Campbell, J. (2016). Infusing technology into a perinatal home visitation intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence in urban and rural settings in the USA. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(11), e302. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.6251.
  • *Sharps, P.W., Bullock, L., Campbell, J., Alhusen, J., Ghazarian, S., Bhandari, S., Schminkey, D. (2016). Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits: The DOVE Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(11), 1129-1138. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2015.5547.
  • *Bacchus, L., Bullock, L., Sharps, P., Burnett, C., Schminkey, D., Buller, A.M., Campbell, J. (2016). “Opening the Door”: A qualitative interpretive study of women’s experiences of being asked about intimate partner violence and receiving an intervention during perinatal home visits in rural and urban settings in the USA.  Journal of Research in Nursing, 21(5-6), 345-364. DOI: 10.1177/1744987116649634.
  • *Wong, JY, Tiwari, A., Fong, DY, & Bullock, L. (2016). A cross-cultural understanding of depression among abused women. Violence Against Women, 22(11), 1371-1396. DOI: 10.1177/1077801215624791.
  • *Schminkey, D., von Oertzen, T., & Bullock, L. (2016). Handling missing data with multilevel structural equation modeling and full information maximum likelihood techniques.  Research in Nursing & Health, 39(4), 286-297. DOI: 10.1002/nur.21724.
  • * Kastello, J., Jacobsen, K., Gaffney, K., Kodadek, M., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2016). Posttraumatic stress disorder among low-income women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence. Archives of Women’s Mental Health19,(3), 521-528. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-015-0594-0.
  • *Kastello, J., Jacobsen, K., Gaffney, K., Kodadek, M., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2016). Predictors of depression symptoms among low-income women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(6), 683-690. DOI: 10.1007/s10597-015-9977-y.
  • *Burnett, C., Schminkey, D., Milburn, J., Kastello, J., Bullock, L., Campbell, J., & Sharps, P. (2016). Negotiating peril: The lived experience of rural, low income women exposed to IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Violence Against Women, 22(8), 943-965. DOI: 10.1177/1077801215614972.
  • *Samankasikorn, W., Pierce, B., St. Ivany, A., Gwon, S.H., Schminkey, D., Bullock, L. (2016). The effect of home visiting with pregnant teens on maternal health. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing,41 (3), 162-167. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0000000000000235.
  • * Kastello, J., Jacobsen, K., Gaffney, K., Kodadek, M., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2015). Self-rated mental health: Screening for depression and PTSD among women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(11), 32-38. DOI: 10.3928/02793695-20151021-02.
  • Laughon, K., Bullock, L., & Fontaine, D. (2015). Violence on campus – we all have a role to play. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(5), 239-240. DOI: 10:3928/0148484834-20150417-10
  • *Bhandari, S., Bullock, L., Richardson, J., Kimeto, P., Campbell, J., & Sharps, P. (2015). Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during the perinatal period.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(12), 2087-2108. DOI: 10.1177/0886260514552274.
  • *Alhusen, J., Bullock, L., Sharps, P., Schminkey, D., Comstock, E., & Campbell, J. (2014). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes in a low-income women.  J. of Women’s Health, 23(11), 920-926. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2014.4862.
  • *Alhusen, J., Ray, E., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2014). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal outcomes. Journal of Women’s Health, 24(1), 100-106. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2014.4872.
  • *McDonnell, K., Bullock, L., Kozower, B., Hollen, P., Heath, J. & Rovnyak, V. (2014) A decision aid to improve smoking abstinence for families facing cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum, 41(6), 649-658. DOI: 10.1188/14.ONF.649-658.
  • *McDonnell, K., Bullock, L., Hollen, P., Heath, J., & Kozower, B. (2014). Emerging issues on the impact of smoking on health related quality of life patients with lung cancer and their families. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18(2), 171-181. DOI: 10.1188/14.CJON.18-02AP.
  • Bullock, L., Bacchus, L., & Sharps, P. (2014). Why ACA-mandated screening matters, Futures without Violence, e-Bulletin, summer 2014. www.futureswithoutviolence.org.
  • *Sharps, P., Alhusen, J., Bullock, L., Bhandari, S., Udo, I., Ghazarian, S., & Campbell, J., (2013). Engaging and retaining abused women in perinatal home visitation programs.  J. of Pediatrics 132 (Suppl 2), S134-S139. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-1021L.
  • *Wong, JY, Tiwari, A, Fong, DY, Yuen, KH,  Humphreys, J, & Bullock, L. (2013). Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: Does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(11), 2181-2202. DOI: 10.1177/0886260512475311.
  • *Alhusen, J., Lucea, M., Bullock, L., & Sharps, P. (2013). Intimate partner violence, substance use, and adverse neonatal outcomes among urban women. J. of Pediatrics, 163(2), 471-476. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.036.
  • *Bhandari, S., Bullock, L., & Sharps, P. (2013).  Strategies employed by rural, pregnant women to deal with intimate partner violence. J. of Ethnographic and Qualitative Research, 7, 143-154. 
  • *Bloom, T.L., Bullock, L., & Parsons, L. (2013).  Rural pregnant women’s stressors and priorities for stress reduction.  Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 33 (12), 813-819. DOI: 10.3109/01612840.2012.712087.
  • *Bhandari, S., Bullock, L., Bair-Merritt, M., Rose, L., Marcantonio, K., Campbell, J., & Sharps, P. (2013).  Pregnant women experiencing IPV: Impact of supportive and non-supportive relationships with their mothers on perinatal depression: A mixed methods analysis.  Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33 (12), 827-837. DOI: 10.3109/01612840.2012.712628.
  • Evans, E.C., & Bullock, L. (2012).  Optimism and other psychosocial influences on antenatal depression:  A systematic review.  Nursing and Health Sciences,14 (3), 352 -361. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2012.00700.
  • *Tiwari, A., Fong, D.Y.T., Wong, J., Yuen, KH., Yuk, H., Pang, P., Humphreys, J., & Bullock, L. (2012). Safety-promoting behaviors of community-dwelling abused Chinese women after an advocacy intervention: A randomized controlled trial. International J. of Nursing Studies, 49(6), 645-655. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.12.005.
  • *McElroy, J., Bloom, T., Moore, K., Geden, E., Everett, K., Bullock, L. (2012). Perinatal mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a low-income rural population of women who smoke. Birth Defects Research Part A- Clinical & Molecular Teratology, 94(4), 223-229. DOI 10.1002/bdra.22891. 

Honors and Awards

  • Excellence in Education Award: Nursing Network on Violence against Women International (NNVAWI) (2015)
  • Leadership Excellence Award: Nurse Researcher. Virginia Nurses Foundation (2014)
  • Distinguished Professor Award, University of Virginia Nursing Alumni Association (2013)
  • University of Missouri, School of Nursing, Honorary Alumni Award (2011)
  • University of Missouri Faculty Excellence Alumni Award (2009)
  • Margaret Woods Allen Award for Research Excellence, Alpha Iota Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau (2004)
  • Elected, Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing (2003)
  • Sinclair School of Nursing Excellence in Research Award (2001)
  • Texas Woman’s University – Great 100 Nursing Alumni (2001)
  • The Margaret Woods Allen Research Award from the Alpha Iota Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International (2000)

Memberships

  • Nursing Network on Violence Against Women International (1987-present)
  • Nursing Research Consortium on Violence and Abuse, founding member (1986-present)
  • Sigma Theta Tau International, member (1983-present)
  • American Nurses Association, member (2000-present)
  • Virginia Nurses Association (2010-present)
  • Southern Nurses Research Association (2010-2017)